O Movimento Sem Terra e os Governos Lula: Da Utopia e do Pragmatismo
PDF

Keywords

Brazil
Workers Party
social movements
Lula Government

How to Cite

Bernardes, B. (2020). O Movimento Sem Terra e os Governos Lula: Da Utopia e do Pragmatismo. Political Observer | Revista Portuguesa De Ciência Política, (12). https://doi.org/10.33167/2184-2078.RPCP2019.12/pp.95-112

Abstract

The article explains the relationship between the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST) and the Workers’ Party (PT) in Brazil. It is argued that the strategy of the MST within the PT’s political party struggle was built in a pragmatic way, being a significant partner in the victory of Lula da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002. In the Brazilian context the relation between parties and social movements has been quoted as one of dependence. However, by analyzing the relationship of the MST with the governments of Lula da Silva, it can be concluded that the latter managed its relationship with the PT through a pragmatic-ideological insertion.

https://doi.org/10.33167/2184-2078.RPCP2019.12/pp.95-112
PDF

References

Almond, G. & Verba, S. (1963). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Alvarez, S. & Escobar, A. (1992). Conclusion: Theoretical and political horizons of change in contemporary Latin American social movements. In A. Escobar & S. Alvarez (Eds.), The making of social movements in Latin America (317-330). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Avritzer, L. (2009). Civil society in Brazil: from state autonomy to political interdependency. Working Paper DCP/UFMG.

Bernardes, B.G. (2012). A história do Partido dos Trabalhadores: uma Narrativa Brasileira. Working Papers do Observatório Político, 19, 1 – 13.

Bernardes, B.G. (2013). A ascensão da esquerda na América Latina: os casos do PT no Brasil e do PSUV na Venezuela. Revista Portuguesa de Ciência Política, 3, 57-66.

Bernardes, B.G. (2014). Desenvolvimento na América Latina: Um modelo pragmático, Globo, 6, 106-111.

Blaikie, N. (2010). Designing social research. (2ª ed). Cambridge, Reino Unido: Polity Press.

Cardoso, F. H. (2006). A arte da política: A história que vivi. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Civilização Brasileira.

Carter, M. (2010). The landless rural workers movement and democracy in Brazil. Latin American Research Review, Special Issue.

Carter, M. & Carvalho, H. M. (2010). A luta na terra: Fonte de inovação, fortalecimento e desafio constante ao MST. In M. Carter (Ed.), Combatendo a desigualdade social: O MST e a reforma agrária no Brasil (287-330). São Paulo, Brasil: Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista.

Cohen, J. & Rogers, J. (1995). Associations and democracy. Londres, Reino Unido: Verso.

Cohen, J. & Arato, A. (1992). Civil society and political theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Costa, S. (2013). Sociedade civil, Estado e qualidade da democracia em Cabo-Verde: Entre a letargia cívica e a omnipresença do Leviathã. In C. M. Sarmento & S. Costa (Eds.), Entre África e a Europa. Nação, Estado e democracia em Cabo Verde (273-329). Coimbra, Portugal: Almedina.

Dagnino, E. (2011). Civil society in Latin America. In M. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of civil society (123-134). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Della Porta, D. & Diani, M. (2011). Social movements. In M. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford handbook ,of civil society. Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Edwards, M. & Gaventa, J. (2001) (Eds.). Global citizen action. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Edwards, M. (2011). Introduction: civil society and the geometry of human relations. In M. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of civil society (3-13). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Encarnación, O. G. (2003). The myth of civil society: social capital and democratic consolidation in Spain and Brazil. London, Reino Unido: Palgrave.

Faoro, R. (2001). Os donos do poder. A formação do patronato político brasileiro. (3ª ed). São Paulo, Brasil: Globo.

French-Davis, R. (2005). Reforming Latin America’s economies: after market fundamentalism. New York City, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gilbert, A. (1994). The Latin American city. Londres, Reino Unido: Latin American Bureau.

Goldstone, J. A. (2003). Introduction. In J. A. Goldstone (Ed.), States, parties, and social movements (1-26). New York City, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Harris, J. (2006). Development of civil society. In R. A. W. Rhodes, S. A. Binder & B. Rockman, The Oxford handbook of political institutions (131-143). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Ingleghart, R. (1997). Modernization and post modernization: cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

IPEA (2005). Radar social. Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Económica Aplicada.

Keck, M. & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond borders: advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Kenny, M. (2014). Civil society. Encyclopædia Britannica. Inc. Online.

Kitschelt, H., Hawkins, K. A., Luna, J. P., Rosas, G. & Zechmeister, E. J. (2010). Latin American party systems. Cambridge, Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.

Levy, C. (2012). Social movements and political parties in Brazil: expanding democracy, the “struggle for the possible” and the reproduction of power structures. Globalization, 9(6), 783-798.

Linz, J. & Stepan, A. (1996). Problems of democratic transition and consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and post-communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Mainwaring, S., O’Donnell, G. & Valenzuela, S. (1992). Issues in democratic consolidation: the new South American democracies in comparative perspective. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press.

Mair, P. (1990) (Ed.). The West European party system. Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Malamud, A. (2009). Fragmentação e divergência na América Latina. Relações Internacionais, 24, 61-73.

Munck, G. (2007). Regimes and democracy in Latin America. Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Nohlen, D. (2002). Political participation in new and old democracies. Voter turnout since 1945: a global report, IDEA.

Norris, P. (2009). Political activism: new challenges, new opportunities. In C. Boix & S. Stokes (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative politics (628-649). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Norris, P., Walgrave, S. & Van Aelst, P. (2004). Who demonstrates? Anti-state rebels, conventional participants, or everyone. Comparative Politics, 37 (2).

O’Donnell, G. (1973). Modernization and bureaucratic-authoritarianism: studies in South American politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Patrício, R. (2012). Estudos de área: América Latina. Lisboa, Portugal: ISCSP.

Petras, J. & Veltmeyer, H. (2009). What’s left in Latin America?. Farnham, Reino Unido: Ashgate Publishing.

Rodgers, D., Beall, J. & Kanbur, R. (2012)(Eds.). Latin American urban development into the 21st Century: towards a renewed perspective on the city. Londres, Reino Unido: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sabetti, F. (2009). Democracy and civic culture. In C. Boix & S. Stokes (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative politics (628-649). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Secco, L. (2011). A história do PT. São Paulo, Brasil: Ateliê Editora.

Singer, A. (2009). Raízes sociais e ideológicas do lulismo. Novos Estudos, 85, 83-102.

Singer, A. (2010). A segunda alma do partido dos trabalhadores. Novos Estudos, 88, 89-111.

Stahler-Shock, R. & Vanden, H. (2011). Introduction: a second look at Latin American social movements’ resistance to the neoliberal paradigm. Latin American Perspectives, 38 (1), 5-13.

Tarrow, S. (1994). Power in movement: collective action and politics. Cambridge, Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press.

Tarrow, S. & Tilly, C. (2009). Contentious politics and social movements. In C. Boix & S. Stokes (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative politics (435-460). Oxford, Reino Unido: Oxford University Press.

Teubal, M. (2009). Agrarian reform and social movements in the age of globalization: Latin America at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Latin American Perspectives, 36 (4).

Törnquist, O. (2009). Introduction: the problem is representation! Towards an analytical framework. In O. Törnquist, N. Webster & K. Stokke (Eds.), Rethinking popular representation (1-27). Londres, Reino Unido: Palgrave Macmillan.

Walzer, M. (1992). The civil society argument. In C. Mouffe (Ed.), Dimensions of radical democracy: pluralism, citizenship, community (89-107). Londres, Reino Unido: Verso.

Welch, C. (2009). Camponeses: Brazil’s peasant movement in historical perspective (1946-2004). Latin American Perspectives, 36 (4), 126-155.

WORLD BANK (2005). World Development Report 2006: Equity and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

At the moment of the article submission, it is required to the author(s) declare to agree with the conditions and norms of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, as well as guaranteeing the inedited and original character of the text submitted to scientific evolution. Thus, the author(s) declare to accept the instructions and conditions of publication of the journal, sharing with this the author’s rights, respecting the duties of copyright and ceding to the journal the rights over the first publication of the text in its printed and digital version.

The partial or integral publication and sharing of the text (in institutional repositories, book chapters, periodical publications, social media and professional platforms in the areas of science and research, among others) determines the quotation of the initial publication in the journal and the hyperlinking to the website of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, resorting, to that effect, to the available information in the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) system.

Political Observer incentives the sharing and distribution of the work published by the authors in the journal, raising the impact factors and the number of registered quotes, this way contributing to an open (https://www.ciencia-aberta.pt/) and accessible science (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/portals-and-platforms/goap/open-science-movement/).