Hungria: O Estado de Direito em Crise?


balance of power
fundamental rights
Rule of Law

How to Cite

Duarte, M. (2019). Hungria: O Estado de Direito em Crise?. Political Observer | Revista Portuguesa De Ciência Política, (9), 13-30.


Between 2010 and 2011, the Fidesz-KDNP government carried out a number of legal, social and political reforms, including voting in a new constitution. Through analysis of this new constitution and amendments made to its predecessor, this article aims to understand the influence of the recent changes to the Hungarian constitutional framework with regard to the country’s rule of law. Based on the theoretical definition of the rule of law, it can be argued that principles such as balance of power, constitutionality of laws, legality of administration, and independence of the judiciary and the media have been undermined in Hungary. Personal dignity, freedom, justice and security have also been undermined. As a result of these decisions, the number of voices critical of Orbán’s government has grown. Among their numbers stands the European Union, which sees Hungary as the first Member State to deviate from the union’s democratic values


Amaral, M. L. (2005). A forma da República – Uma introdução ao estudo do Direito Constitucional. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.

Bánkuti, M., Halmai, G. & Scheppele, K. L. (2015). Hungary’s illiberal turn: Disabling the Constitution. In P. Kraszter & J. V. Til (Eds.), The Hungarian patient. Social opposition to an illiberal Democracy (pp. 37-46). Budapest: Central European University Press.

Beissinger, M, R. & Sasse, G. (2014). An end to “patience”?. In N. Bermeo & L. M. Bartels (Eds.), Mass politics in tough times: Opinions, votes, and protest in the Great Recession (pp. 334-370). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bobbio, N. (1987). The future of Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bugaric, B. (2014). Protecting Democracy and the Rule of Law in the European Union: The hungarian challenge. (LEQS Paper no. 79). London, UK: London School of Economics and Political Science. <> (acedido em janeiro de 2017).

Bugaric, B. (2016). Protecting Democracy inside the EU: On article 7 TEU and the hungarian turn to Authoritarianism. In C. Closa & D. Kochenov (Eds.), Reinforcing Rule of Law oversight in the European Union (pp. 82-101). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Canotilho, G. (1999). Estado de Direito. Lisboa: Gradiva.

Cartledge, B. (2011). The will to survive – A History of Hungary. London: Hurst & Company.

Crampton, R. J. (1997). Eastern Europe in the twentieth century - and after. London: Routledge.

Dettke, D. (2014). Hungary’s Jobbik Party, the challenge of European Ethno-Nationalism and the future of the European Project. (Reports and Analysis no. 4). Warsaw: Center for International Relations. <> (acedido em fevereiro de 2017).

Grabenwarter, C., Hoffmann-Riem, W., Suchocka, H., Tuori, K. & Velaers, J. (2013). Opinion on the Fourth Amendment to the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Strasbourg: European Commission for Democracy Through Law (Venice Commission). <> (acedido em março de 2017).

Hedling, N. (2014). Developing mechanisms for regional influence in national processes of constitutional change: The European Union and Hungary. In R. Cordenillo & K. Sample (Eds.), Rule of Law and constitution building: The role of regional organizations (pp. 141-159). Stockholm: International IDEA.

Jakab, A., & Sonnevend, P. (2013). Continuity with deficiencies: The new basic law of Hungary. European Constitutional Law Review, 9(1), 102–138.

Kovács, K., & Tóth, G. A. (2011). Hungary’s constitutional transformation. European Constitutional Law Review, 7(2), 183–203.

Lendvai, P. (2012). Hungary: between Democracy and Authoritarianism. London: C. Hurst & Co.

Lewis, P., Lomax, B., & Wightman, G. (1994). The emergence of multi-party systems in East-Central Europe. A comparative analysis. In G. Pridham & T. Vanhanem (Eds.), Democratization in Eastern Europe: domestic and international perspectives (pp. 151188). London: Routledge.

Ministry of Justice of Hungary. (2011). The Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary: Ministry of Justice of Hungary. <> (acedido em abril de 2017).

Miranda, J. (2011). Manual de Direito Constitucional, Tomo I. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.

Muller, J. W. (2011). The Hungarian tragedy. Dissent, 58(2), 5-10.

Nagy, A. B., Boros, T., & Vasali, Z. (2013). More radical than the Radicals: the Jobbik Party in international comparison. In R. Melzer & S. Serafin (Eds.), Right-wing extremism in Europe – Country analyses, counter-strategies and labor-market oriented exit strategies (pp. 229-254). Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Forum Berlin.

Norwegian Helsinki Committee (NHC). (2012). Democracy at stake in Hungary – The Orbán government’s Constitutional revolution. Oslo: Norwegian Helsinki Committee. <> (acedido em abril de 2017).

Novais, J. R. (1987). Contributo para uma teoria do Estado de Direito: do Estado de Direito Liberal ao Estado social e democrático de Direito. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.

Novak, B. (2014). Scheppele on democracy, constitutionalism, and Rule of Law in Hungary. The Budapest Beacon. Disponível em <> (acedido em março de 2017).

Rupnik, J. (2012). How things went wrong. Journal of Democracy, 23(3), 132-137.

Sadecki, A. (2014). In a state of necessity – How has Orban changed Hungary. (Point of View no. 41). Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies. <> (acedido em abril de 2017).

Scheppele, K. L. & Krugman, P. (2011). Hungary’s Constitutional Revolution. The New York Times – The Conscience of a Liberal. Disponível em <> (acedido em maio de 2017).

Stegmaier, M., & Lewis-Beck, M. (2011). Shocks and oscillations: The political economy of Hungary. Electoral Studies, 30(3), 462-467.

Tartakoff, L. Y. (2012). Religion, Nationalism, History, and Politics in Hungary’s new Constitution. Society, 49(4), 360-366.

Tavares, R. (2012). On the situation of fundamental rights: standards and practices in Hungary. European Union: Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. < (acedido em março de 2017)>.

União Europeia. (1992). Tratado da União Europeia. Disponível em <> (acedido em abril de 2017).

At the moment of the article submission, it is required to the author(s) declare to agree with the conditions and norms of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, as well as guaranteeing the inedited and original character of the text submitted to scientific evolution. Thus, the author(s) declare to accept the instructions and conditions of publication of the journal, sharing with this the author’s rights, respecting the duties of copyright and ceding to the journal the rights over the first publication of the text in its printed and digital version.

The partial or integral publication and sharing of the text (in institutional repositories, book chapters, periodical publications, social media and professional platforms in the areas of science and research, among others) determines the quotation of the initial publication in the journal and the hyperlinking to the website of Political Observer - Revista Potuguesa de Ciência Política, resorting, to that effect, to the available information in the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) system.

Political Observer incentives the sharing and distribution of the work published by the authors in the journal, raising the impact factors and the number of registered quotes, this way contributing to an open ( and accessible science (