Russian Orthodox Church: Kremlin’s ‘invisible hand’ in war against Ukraine | A Igreja Ortodoxa Russa: a ‘mão invisível’ do Kremlin na Guerra contra a Ucrânia


Russian Orthodox Church
Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Holy Rus
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
Russkiy Mir

How to Cite

Constantino, P. (2024). Russian Orthodox Church: Kremlin’s ‘invisible hand’ in war against Ukraine | A Igreja Ortodoxa Russa: a ‘mão invisível’ do Kremlin na Guerra contra a Ucrânia . Political Observer | Revista Portuguesa De Ciência Política (Portuguese Journal of Political Science), (20), 17–26.


The article intends to demonstrate that the foreign policy of the Russian Orthodox Church (IOR) affects the implementation of Moscow’s policy in the war against Ukraine. The main goal is to determine how the Kremlin, through various hybrid capabilities and techniques, uses the IOR to implement its foreign policy vectors. The study is based on a historical analysis of the international activities of the IOR, focusing on the activities of the Department of Church External Relations (DREI) of the Patriarchate of Moscow, which was created, in 1946, by Stalin and taken over by Vladimir Putin. In this context, the DREI of the Patriarchate of Moscow was and continues to be “the invisible hand” of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB), which works under religious cover at the world level.


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